Friction Welding Overview

Friction Welding

A solid-state process that produces heat using friction between workpieces gives new welding, Friction Welding. Plastically displacement of material occurs because of lateral force. Don’t confuse it with fusion welding process as it involves no melting. The use of it seen in automotive and aviation applications.

Direct heat input and joining at weld interface helps in yielding small heat-affected zones. Since it is melt-free growth in materials like heat-treated steel, evolves. As a result of this, the surface gets clean. Metal and plastic pieces force out depending on the process. Dissimilar metals joining is also possible.

It’s used with thermoplastics under pressure and heat act analogously. The process joins plastic to metal pieces as well like eyeglass frames.

Friction Welding History

In 1956, an experiment took place, and friction developed.

Metal Friction Welding Techniques

Rotary Friction Welding

Also called as spin welding, the machine utilizes two chucks that hold the material needed to join. One end fixed, and other rotates. The drive motor as well as chucks connect in the heating stage and using the clutch motor from chucks disconnects.

Linear Friction Welding

In this, chuck-will oscillates rather than spinning. It works at low speed for welding. The material should have a high shear strength. The result is in better joints compared to rotary techniques.

Friction Welding
Friction Welding


A variety of friction generates kinetic energy with the submission of lateral force to join the parts in total. A set of heavy wheels stores rotational energy termed as Flywheels. Flywheels make the possible supply of kinetic energy. The geometry of weld and the type of material are the two factors. It helps in determining the dynamic energy.

Friction Welding Procedure

Friction Welding
Friction Welding


The determination of crucial welding factors is essential. Lateral thrust force, rotational speed, and flywheel mass affect preparation. For instance, many times, initial run-through imparts optimal quality.


FW Machine resembles similar to traditional shop lathe. It has chucks attached to the flywheels of specifically-determined mass. The chuck hold component from one side and opposite side chucks move axially. As a result of this, wheels start to rotate. Thus, kinetic energy stored at a predetermined speed.


Ir requires speed and kinetic energy levels generated by friction and the spindle engine shuts off. In addition, the static piece attaches to the non-rotating part forced by the hydraulic ram and cause friction. Heating by friction soften the welding surfaces. As a result, it forms a bond with enough lateral pressure.


The parts compressed along with continues spinning of the flywheels removes impurities, refining grain surface. Creating of the extremely strong bond. This is the science behind acknowledging rotational speed and flywheel mass. The more the motor run, the more parts of material grow even hotter. However, an ineffective relationship shows up when shutting off of engine takes place.


Once flywheel stops, welding completes. It takes around 15-45 minutes, depending on the composition, and size of materials.


The uses of friction welding processes reduce the cycle time. The benefits offered are:

Controlled Process

Control of factors like thrust force, rotational speed, and flywheel mass done by controlled machine. This results in minimal variation, unlike TIG & MIG welding processes.


With little interruption during the process, repeatability, and extreme consistency achieved.

Friction Welding Components Preparation

Metal displacement will remove surface conditions. It expels contamination from zones due to adequate saw-cut surface welding.

Faster Time

FW takes a short time. Compared to conventional welding and machining techniques is best.

Minimal Post-Welding

The technique generates a component shape that needs post-machining.

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